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Penn State University Libraries

Making use of In-text Citation

Add a citation that is in-text you relate to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another supply. For each and every citation that is in-text your paper, there should be a matching entry in your guide list.

MLA citation that is in-text makes use of mcdougal’s final title therefore the web web page quantity from where the quote or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). In the event that supply will not make use of web web page figures, usually do not add a quantity when you look at the parenthetical citation: (Smith).

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few scientists in the linguistics industry are suffering from training programs made to enhance indigenous speakers’ capacity to understand accented message (Derwing et al. 246; Thomas 15). Their training methods are derived from the study described above indicating that comprehension improves with experience of speech that is non-native. Derwing and others carried out their training with pupils getting ready to be social employees, but remember that other professionals who use non-native speakers could reap the benefits of a program that is similar258).


Derwing, Tracey M., et al. “Teaching Native Speakers to be controlled by Foreign-accented Speech.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, number 4, 2002, pp. 245-259.

Thomas, Holly K. Training Approaches For Improving Audience’ Comprehension of Foreign-accented Speech. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2004.

Citing Website Pages In Text

Cite webpages in text while you would every other supply, utilizing the writer if understood. In the event that writer is certainly not understood, make use of the name due to the fact in-text citation.

Your in-text citation should lead your audience to your matching entry in the guide list. Listed here are samples of making use of in-text citation with website pages.

Whole web site with author: In-text citation moms and dads play a crucial role in helping kids discover processes for handling bullying (Kraiser).

Guide entry Kraizer, Sherryll. Safe Child. Coalition for Children, 2011,

Web site without any writer: In-text citation the word Nittany Lion had been created by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 (” all plain things Nittany”).

Guide entry “Everything Nittany.” About Penn State. Penn State University, 2006,

General Gu >

In MLA design mcdougal’s title may be included in a choice of the narrative text of the paper, or in parentheses after the mention of the the origin.

Author’s title section of narrative:

Gass and Varonis discovered that probably the most essential take into account understanding non-native message is knowledge of this issue (163).

Author’s name in parentheses:

One study discovered that probably the most crucial aspect in understanding non-native message is knowledge of this issue (Gass and Varonis 163).

Group as writer: (United states Psychological Association 123)

Multiple works: (separate each ongoing use semi-colons)

Studies have shown that listening to an accent that is particular comprehension of accented message as a whole (Gass and Varonis 143; Thomas 24).

Direct estimate:

One research unearthed that “the listener’s understanding of the main topics discourse significantly facilitates the interpretation for the whole message” (Gass and Varonis 85).

Gass and Varonis unearthed that “the listener’s understanding of the main topics discourse significantly facilitates the interpretation for the entire message” (85).

Note: For quotations which are significantly more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, display quotations being an indented block of text (one inches from remaining margin) and omit quote markings. Put your parenthetical citation by the end of this block of text, following the last punctuation mark.

Along with awareness-raising, exercising listening to accented speech has been confirmed to enhance listening comprehension. This short article advises developing training that is listening for library faculty and staff, centered on research through the linguistics and language teaching areas. Also exposure that is brief accented message might help audience enhance their comprehension, therefore enhancing the amount of solution to worldwide clients. (O’Malley 19)

Functions by Multiple Authors

Whenever citing functions by numerous writers, constantly spell the word “and out.” Whenever a supply has three or even more writers, just the very first one shown when you look at the source is usually offered followed closely by et al.

One author: (Field 399)

Functions Cited entry: Field, John. “Intelligibility additionally the Listener: The part of Lexical Stress.” TESOL Quarterly, vol. 39, no. 3, 2005, pp. 399-423.

Two authors: (Gass and Varonis 67)

Functions Cited entry: Gass, Susan, and Evangeline M. Varonis. “The effectation of Familiarity in the Comprehensibility of Nonnative Speech.” Language Learning, vol. 34, number 1, 1984, pp. 65-89.

Three or higher writers: (Munro et al. 70)

Functions Cited entry: Munro, Murray J., et al. “Salient Accents, Covert Attitudes: Consciousness-raising for Pre-service 2nd Language Teachers.” Prospect, vol. 21, # 1, 2006, pp. 67-79.